Risk Management for Electronic Ballot Delivery, Marking, and Return Risk Management for Electronic Ballot Delivery, Marking, and Return



Some voters face challenges voting in-person and by mail. State and local election officials in many states use email, fax, web portals, and/or web-based applications to facilitate voting remotely for groups like military and overseas voters and voters with specific needs.

The Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA), the Election Assistance Commission (EAC), the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) assess that the risks vary for electronic ballot delivery, marking, and return. While there are effective risk management controls to enable electronic ballot delivery and marking, we recommend paper ballot return as electronic ballot return technologies are high-risk even with controls in place. Recognizing that some election officials are mandated by state law to employ this high-risk process, its use should be limited to voters who have no other means to return their ballot and have it counted. Notably, we assess that electronic delivery of ballots to voters for return by mail is less vulnerable to systemic disruption.

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